PAGE 9 2 Chapter 1: Government can be defined as the institutions and processes that make and implement authoritative decisions for a so ciety.
Chris Lowe As an historian whose graduate school exam fields included African history and the comparative history of slavery, who has taught African-American history and U.
On the one hand I think it is culturally important that we have the holiday and that creating it was a good step. It honors not only a great man, but also, at its best, treats him as a synecdoche, a part representing a whole, for the wider struggles for equality, justice and peace in the United States.
But on the other hand, public commemoration of the day, particularly in the mass media and to some extent in education, often falls short of that best.
It thereby misses opportunities to focus on the continuing challenges of race and class, peace and justice in our country. Too often we see imagery that evades the historical realities of the Reverend King's story and that of the Civil Rights movement.
Even worse, at times, some commentators cherry-pick King's words and misconstrue them for ends that obstruct our continuing struggles to reconstruct America on a more fair, egalitarian, humane and decent basis.
To begin with, consider mass media pabulum about the struggles for Civil Rights that oddly minimizes the struggles, even while honoring black people for standing up for themselves and their rights, by neglecting to mention why and against what they were struggling.
The aim perhaps is to avoid giving offense to members of the white majority or perhaps to try to include us. This sort of ad, news story or presentation provides an weirdly distorted picture, in which we see black people heroically struggling and demanding their civil rights, while white America is standing on the sidelines, cheering them on.
In effect the Civil Rights movement is reduced to an exercise in mass shadow-boxing. Because virtually no one now favors formal, legally enforced racial discrimination, that lack of support is falsely projected onto what is still the relatively recent past. At the time, of course, white America did not as whole cheer the movement on.
A small minority of whites took part or supported it actively. A much larger minority fiercely and bitterly and often violently resisted the movement's demands. The great bulk of white people were somewhere in between. Some genuinely wished to see the movement succeed but did little, others were more grudging but agreed that the time had come, others passively went along with the the changes but didn't really want them.
Eventually enough whites moved and were moved sufficiently away from outright opposition and toward support that Congress bipartisanly, with most of the strongest opposition coming from southern Democrats and President Johnson were able to pass the key Civil Rights laws: And that's the point -- the struggles were needed to change hearts and minds, and they were struggles against real, forceful, determined opponents who were as American as any of us.
The struggles were long, decades long, and hard and painful and bloody, as is attested among other things by persistent FBI harassment and two assassination attempts against King himself, the second tragically successful.
As an antidote to anodyne presentations, I commend to you the wonderful television serial "Eyes on the Prize," directed by Henry Hampton, now available again after being suppressed by copyright issues for years. You have many choices of reminder, from Emmet Till's open coffin to Bull Connor's iconic snarling dogs and fire hoses to white mobs in Little Rock and in Chicago, KKK members in sheets and members of White Citizens Councils in suits and dresses and, in the second series, the black man being speared with an American flag in front of the Massachusetts state capitol, near a memorial to African-American Civil War soldiers.
But the episode that still astonishes me each time I see it is the riot by white students at the University of Mississippi upon James Meredith's integrating it -- Trent Lott was a student there then.
The students overturned and torched cars, they threw stones and bottles, they shot guns, all aimed at hundreds of federal marshalls and other agents, wounding many, who did little to fight back, simply hunkered down.With the holidays upon us, generosity is in the air and holiday shopping is on the rise.
With organizational and family holiday parties ahead, secret Santa and white elephant gift . ACES congratulates Dymin Ellis, whose personal essay, created in the ACES Educational Center for the Arts Creative Writing Department, has been published in this issue of New Haven Magazine.
Essay on Thurgood Marshall's Fight for Equality. Words 3 Pages. It was Thurgood Marshall who helped end legal segregation in the United States.
He won Supreme Court victories creating transportation for children, which proved that separate but equal, is not equal. Marshall was able to prove to the Supreme Court that separate but equal was.
Section 1 of the Civil Rights Act of sought to “recognize the equality of all men before the law,” regardless of race, color, or “previous condition of servitude.” The Act stated that all citizens should have equal access to inns, theaters, and other public venues.
Thurgood Marshall is a man of law, he knows and understands the rights of people and encourages the enforcement of the laws set by the United States to prosecute individuals who willfully interfere with the rights of other individuals. Book Reviews most notably in Robert Cover's essay "Violence and the Word" (), this vein of sociolegal scholarship still leaves much to be mined.
While Dudziak does not engage this literature as one might hope, what she has provided is a narrative that can provoke rich reflections on the subject.