Newsroom of The New York TimesThe newspaper industry has always been cyclical, and the industry has weathered previous troughs.
To painting to the left is of Charles IIking of Spain, the last of the Spanish Hapsburgs, and an imbecile whose premature death at the age of 39 ushered in a period of dynastic chaos which led to the War of Spanish Succession These conflicts between France and other European powers were one of those turning points in history, a sad capstone to the long reign of the Sun King, Louis the XIV.
But this a story of genetics as well as history, because historians have long assumed impressionistically that there was something rotten in the gene pool of the Spanish Hapsburgs. Here is an excerpt from an online biography of Charles II: His Habsburg jaw stood so much out that his two rows of teeth could not meet; he was unable to chew.
His tongue was so large that he was barely able to speak. His intellect was similarly disabled. His brief life consisted chiefly of a passage from prolonged infancy to premature senility. He had been fed by wet nurses until the age of 5 or 6 and was not allowed to walk until almost fully grown.
Even then, he was unable to walk properly, because his legs would not support him and he fell several times. His body remained that of an invalid child. The nature of his upbringing, the inadequacy of his education, the stiff etiquette of his court, his dependence upon his mother and his superstition helped to create a mentally retarded and hypersensitive monarch.
The kings of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty frequently married close relatives in such a way that uncle-niece, first cousins and other consanguineous unions were prevalent in that dynasty.
In the historical literature, it has been suggested that inbreeding was a major cause responsible for the extinction of the dynasty when the king Charles II, physically and mentally disabled, died in and no children were born from his two marriages, but this hypothesis has not been examined from a genetic perspective.
In this article, this hypothesis is checked by computing the inbreeding coefficient F of the Spanish Habsburg kings from an extended pedigree up to 16 generations in depth and involving more than 3, individuals. The inbreeding coefficient of the Spanish Habsburg kings increased strongly along generations from 0.
In addition to inbreeding due to unions between close relatives, ancestral inbreeding from multiple remote ancestors makes a substantial contribution to the inbreeding coefficient of most kings. A statistically significant inbreeding depression for survival to 10 years is detected in the progenies of the Spanish Habsburg kings.
F, or the coefficient of inbreedingis critical here. Charles II was not simply the offspring of a first cousin marriage, he was the culmination of a repeated instances of cousin marriage over several generations.
This is a problem. To see how, consider if Philip or Joanna carry a deleterious mutation which is recessive in its expression.
Presumably their children would be unaffected, because only one of them should carry a rare deleterious mutation, resulting complementation so that one full functional copy is sufficient. The formula for F, the inbreeding coefficient is: Finally you have to include in the inbreeding coefficient of that common ancestor.
Assuming that the grandparents, of whom there are only two, are unrelated. Then, it simplifies to: Over time this sort of process would result in radically increased inbreeding coefficients. The chart to the left plots out the process of repeated brother-sister matings within an isolated population over time.
The inbreeding coefficient naturally converges upon 1. In some ways inbreeding can be thought of as a way to crank down long term effective population size and increase the power of stochastic processes within a gene pool.
If drift becomes powerful enough it can lead the population toward extinction through mutational meltdown.Intelligent intelligence testing. Psychologists are broadening the concept of intelligence and how to test it.
By ETIENNE BENSON And they have produced new theories and tests that broaden the concept of intelligence beyond its traditional boundaries. As a result. When the Pew Research Centre's Internet & American Life project asked its panel of more than internet experts for their reaction, 81% of them agreed with the proposition that "people's use of the internet has enhanced human intelligence".
The Internet and Its Contribution to the Downfall of the Intelligence of the Current Generations PAGES 3. WORDS View Full Essay.
More essays like this: Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. Exactly what I needed. - Jenna Kraig, student @ UCLA.
Intelligence on the Internet by Jonathan Freeman. Proposed to. Communications - Fall The University of Michigan. Introduction The intelligence community has always been a cliquish group, inbred and secretive. The Hapsburgs are one of those royal families who are relatively well known, and in the minds of the public are to a great extent the emblems of the downsides of inbreeding.
The Six Living Generations In America. Lesson; Exercise; Answer; Dr. Jill Novak, University of Phoenix, Texas A&M University. Desire a chance to learn, explore and make a contribution; They get all their information and most of their socialization from the Internet.