This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Complementary and alternative medicine CAM has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders.
Clinical trials with double-blind, active controlled design Toups et al. Data from initial and six-month surveys Open in a separate window ADs: In a large study designed to discover biomarkers and genotypes predictive of clinical outcome in MDD patients, Kloiber et al.
Various antidepressants were administered at the discretion of the attending physician. The response rate on the HAMD after 5 weeks was The authors reported that reduced improvement during antidepressant treatment in high-BMI patients was accompanied by smaller improvements in attention and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis dysregulation compared with normal-BMI patients.
Poor treatment outcome in obese patients with depression was also previously reported in a meta-analysis. The results of the overweight and obese groups were not significantly different from each other. Of the patients included in the study population, Comparing these two groups of patients, non-remitters had a higher mean BMI Preliminary results obtained by our group unpublished also supported the long-term association of treatment-resistant depression TRD and baseline obesity.
In that study, we analyzed data from a nationwide prospective study of Korean patients with depressive disorders. For 52 weeks, the subjects were treated with various antidepressants according to the decision of the attending clinician. However, not all studies support a negative effect of body weight on antidepressant responses.
The prevalence of central obesity was not significantly different between TRD These results were not changed after adjusting for sex and age. The odds ratio of treatment resistance for high BMI vs. The authors did not find any differences in antidepressant treatment outcomes across the BMI classes.
The frequency, intensity, and burden of side effects were also not significantly different across groups in week 12, after adjustment. In week 28, there were no differences in depression outcome or functional measures among groups.
The prevalence of abdominal obesity was Rather, significant predictors of depression chronicity were elevated: These results indicated that a certain degree of inflammatory and metabolic dysregulation, but not abdominal obesity, could worsen the course of depression due to a reduced antidepressant treatment response.
Atypical Depressive Symptoms A general consensus is that clinical heterogeneity complicates efforts to identify the biological, genetic, and environmental underpinnings of depression [ 24 ].CHAPTER II.
LITERATURE REVIEW Definitions Generalized anxiety disorders (Anxiety Disorder, GAD) is a condition of a disorder characterized by excessive anxiety and worry and irrational sometimes unrealistic to events.
While the literature relating to the technical process of heart rate variability and aspects of depressive disorders has been reviewed in the past, research relating to both depressive and bipolar disorders has not been comprehensively reviewed. Depressive disorders are defined by clinically derived standard diagnostic criteria of emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and somatic symptoms, and associated with functional impairment.
They are assessed through structured clinical interviews and observation. Running Head: Depressive Disorders 1 A Literature Review on Depressive Disorders Prachi Bhuptani University of Oregon Depressive Disorders 2 A Literature Review on Depressive Disorders Depressive disorders are one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders in United States.
A review of the literature was conducted to explore the various ways that anxious depression is currently defined.
Data from the Munich Follow-Up Study showed that co-morbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders based on DSM-III criteria was % in an epidemiologic sample and % in a clinical setting. 7 Another study of co-morbid.
RUNNINGHEAD: PERSPECTIVESIN MAJOR DEPRESSIVEDISORDER(MDD) 1 Current research and perspectives in major depressive disorder: A literature review Cooper John Feild Southern Utah University 2.
PERSPECTIVES IN MDD 2 Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD) is increasing in prevalence throughout the United States.