Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a modern context, meaning something similar, but no longer assuming that philosophy was man's natural perfection.
It is said that the mainland portion of what is now Tanzania was named by a British civil servant infrom the Swahili words tanga sail and nyika bright arid plain. InTanganyika was joined with Zanzibar, an offshore archipelago of islands, to form the present United Republic of Tanzania.
Because of a unique combination of historic and cultural factors, Tanzanians share strong feelings of national pride and cohesion.
This sense of nationalism has served to keep the country at peace for over two decades, while most of its neighbors have been involved intermittently in catastrophically destructive civil and cross-border wars. Tanzanians have been able to resolve most internal problems without resorting to violence because of a shared language, the lack of political or economic dominance by any ethnic group, and the strong leadership provided by Julius Nyerere —the first president of Tanzania.
At the Cultures of chimpanzees time, however, repressive, corrupting influences emanating from the colonial, socialist, and capitalist eras have fostered among many Tanzanians an attitude of dependency and fatalistic resignation that helps keep the country one of the poorest in the world.
Covering approximatelysquare milessquare kilometers —an area about one and one-half times the size of Texas, Tanzania lies on the east coast of Africa, just south of the equator. Tanzania also shares three great lakes—Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi—with its neighbors.
The country is comprised of a wide variety of agro-ecological zones: The ethnic groups that inhabit Tanzania have adapted to a wide range of geophysical and climatic conditions. The specific habits, customs, and life-views of each group have been influenced by tribal traditions and alliances, European invasions, population movements over the centuries, and introduced and endemic diseases.
In the late s, the central political administration was moved from Dar es Salaam on the Indian Ocean coast to the more centrally located city of Dodoma, which lies in the middle of the central plateau. Because of Dodoma's dry climate, relative lack of economic development, and small size, however, the port of Dar es Salaam remains the urban center of national importance.
The current population in Tanzania is approximately 30 million, comprised of indigenous peoples and Pakistani, Indian, Arab, and European subpopulations.
There are heavy population concentrations in the urban centers including Dar es Salaam, Mwanza, Tabora, and Mbeyain the foothills of Mount Kilimanjaro, and along the coast of Lake Malawi.
While each ethnic group speaks its own local language, almost all Tanzanians are also fluent in the national language, Swahili Kiswahili in Swahilia coastal Bantu language strongly influenced by Arabic.
The second official language is English, a vestige of the British colonial period. Most Tanzanians with postsecondary educations speak both official languages fluently in addition to their tribal language. Nyerere encouraged the adoption of Swahili for all Tanzanians in a concerted and successful effort to enable people from different parts of the country to communicate with one another and to encourage them to identify themselves as one people.
The use of a single common language has greatly facilitated Tanzania trade, political debate, nationalism, information dissemination, and conflict resolution. Mount Kilimanjaro, the highest peak in Africa, and the magnificent wild animals including lions, elephants, rhinoceros, giraffes, leopards, and cheetahs, to name only a few draw millions of tourists to the country every year.
The landscape and animals are valued national treasures, symbolized on coins and as brand names for manufactured products. Severe depredations by poachers from both inside and outside the country, however, continue to threaten the survival of many species. The torch of freedom uhuru and the figure of a soldier representing the sacrifice of veterans and the war dead are also common symbols throughout the country.
Elegant ebony carvings of both representational and modern design, a specialty of the Makonde people of southeast Tanzania, are prized by collectors around the world. History and Ethnic Relations Tanzania was cradle to some of the earliest hominids on earth, made famous by the discoveries of Louis and Mary Leakey at Olduvai Gorge.
Bantu-speaking peoples migrated to eastern Africa at the same time that trade between Arabic-speaking peoples and coastal populations was initiated in the first century B. By the twelfth century, Arab trading posts were well established along the coast and on some islands.
Although Vasco da Gama landed on the East African coast init was not until that the Portuguese fully controlled trade on the Indian Ocean.
The Arabs had been trading along the coastline for centuries when Sa'id ibn Suttan moved his capital from Oman to Zanzibar in to take advantage of the slave markets.
During the early nineteenth century, Arab slave and ivory traders began to penetrate deeper into the interior of what was to become Tanzania.
InZanzibar became a British protectorate while the mainland became part of German East Africa. The period of German rule was extremely heavy-handed; when the Africans fought back during the Maji-Maji rebellion oftens of thousands were killed. Adhering to a policy of "indirect rule," the British government used indigenous political systems to implement their control, thereby resulting in much less open hostility than occurred during the time of German rule.
Emergence of the Nation. The birth of nationhood may be attributed to the earlier independence of other African nations along with a growing sense of unity and a need to become independent from the British colonial government. Independence was achieved without bloodshed.
African officials elected to TANU in and constituted the administration for internal self-government in May Cultures in Chimpanzees Nature, , () Whiten, human cultures14 but previously unrecognised amongst non-human species.
Culture is defined in very different ways in different academic disciplines At one extreme, some cultural anthropologists insist on linguistic. Chimpanzee Cultures beautifully conveys the experience of working with chimpanzees, our closest living relative [It] gives us a better appreciation of the place of our own species in Nature.
(Jane Goodall) This volume presents the best up-to-date collection of the current state of knowledge of most aspects of chimpanzee behaviour, and it spells out the dangers now facing the apes and their.
Ancient Man and His First Civilizations The Original Black Cultures of Eastern Europe and Asia And their first contacts with the invading Albino People of Central Asia.
Apr 20, · Dolphins have a position on the top tier of animal intelligence, and are comparable to both chimpanzees and humans in cognitive and social abilities. Identification.
It is said that the mainland portion of what is now Tanzania was named by a British civil servant in , from the Swahili words tanga (sail) and nyika (bright arid plain). Thus what was known formerly as German East Africa became Tanganyika Territory. Chimpanzee Culture.
signs of distinct cultures, in which groups develop their own sets of behaviors based on social ties and shared history. Most people think of culture as encompassing such uniquely human skills as language, music, art, and clothing styles.
Chimpanzees are now also teaching us about how they cure some of their own.