In this theory Bowlby suggested that children have a critical period, which is between birth and two years of age, that their primary care-giver must care for the child continuously through this period and that if a child is deprived of this care it will suffer severe irreversible damage including affectionless psychopathy, mental retardation, delinquency and depression.
Harlow was born and raised in Fairfield, Iowa, the third of four brothers. After a semester as an English major with nearly disastrous grades, he declared himself as a psychology major.
Harlow was unsuccessful in persuading the Department of Psychology to provide him with adequate laboratory space. As a result, Harlow acquired a vacant building down the street from the University, and, with the assistance of his graduate students, renovated the building into what later became known as the Primate Laboratory,  one of the first of its kind in the world.
Under Harlow's direction, it became a place of cutting-edge research at which some 40 students earned their PhDs.
He served as head of the Human Resources Research branch of the Department of the Army from —, head of the Division of Anthropology and Psychology of the National Research Council from —, consultant to the Army Scientific Advisory Paneland president of the American Psychological Association from — Harlow married his first wife, Clara Mears, in One of the select students with an IQ above whom Terman studied at Stanford, Clara was Harlow's student before becoming romantically involved with him.
The couple had two children together, Robert and Richard. Harlow and Mears divorced in That same year, Harlow married child psychologist Margaret Kuenne. They had two children together, Pamela and Jonathan.
Margaret died on 11 Augustafter a prolonged struggle with cancerwith which she had been diagnosed in The couple lived together in Tucson, Arizona until Harlow's death in He began his career with nonhuman primate research.
It was through these studies that Harlow discovered that the monkeys he worked with were developing strategies for his tests. What would later become known as learning sets, Harlow described as "learning to learn. In order to study the development of these learning sets, Harlow needed access to developing primates, so he established a breeding colony of rhesus macaques in Due to the nature of his study, Harlow needed regular access to infant primates and thus chose to rear them in a nursery setting, rather than with their protective mothers.
Research with and caring for infant rhesus monkeys further inspired Harlow, and ultimately led to some of his best-known experiments: Although Harlow, his students, contemporaries, and associates soon learned how to care for the physical needs of their infant monkeys, the nursery-reared infants remained very different from their mother-reared peers.
Psychologically speaking, these infants were slightly strange: Skinner and the behaviorists took on John Bowlby in a discussion of the mother's importance in the development of the child, the nature of their relationship, and the impact of physical contact between mother and child.
Inhis colleague, James Robertsonproduced a short and controversial documentary film, titled A Two-Year-Old Goes to Hospital, demonstrating the almost-immediate effects of maternal separation. Bowlby de-emphasized the mother's role in feeding as a basis for the development of a strong mother—child relationship, but his conclusions generated much debate.
It was the debate concerning the reasons behind the demonstrated need for maternal care that Harlow addressed in his studies with surrogates. Physical contact with infants was considered harmful to their development, and this view led to sterile, contact-less nurseries across the country.
Bowlby disagreed, claiming that the mother provides much more than food to the infant, including a unique bond that positively influences the child's development and mental health.
To investigate the debate, Harlow created inanimate surrogate mothers for the rhesus infants from wire and wood. Harlow next chose to investigate if the infants had a preference for bare-wire mothers or cloth-covered mothers.
For this experiment, he presented the infants with a clothed mother and a wire mother under two conditions.
In one situation, the wire mother held a bottle with food, and the cloth mother held no food. In the other situation, the cloth mother held the bottle, and the wire mother had nothing.Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment suggests that children come into the world biologically pre-programmed to form attachments with others, because this will help them to survive.
Bowlby was very much influenced by ethological theory in general, but especially by Lorenz’s () study of benjaminpohle.com showed that attachment was innate (in young ducklings) and therefore has a.
The Theory Of Attachment Theory - Harris () shows that what children learn in the home may be irrelevant in the outside world. The example given was of identical twins, if separated at birth and brought up in different households they are more likely to have similar habits, hobbies and styles rather then twins that are brought up together in the same house.
Maternal deprivation. In , Bowlby's earlier work on delinquent and According to attachment theory, attachment in infants is primarily a process of proximity seeking to an identified attachment figure in situations of perceived distress or . Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment An extension of Lorenz’s theory Bowlby worked for many years as a child psychoanalyst so was clearly very influenced by Freud’s theories and child development.
For each answer completely fill in the circle alongside the appropriate answer.
THE ORIGINS OF ATTACHMENT THEORY: JOHN BOWLBY AND MARY AINSWORTH INGE BRETHERTON Attachment theory is the joint work of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (Ainsworth &.