To the extent that premise 1. As statements 2 to 4 are generally treated as uncontroversial,[ citation needed ] discussion has tended to focus on the status of the first. Suggested reasons for accepting the premise[ edit ] Some principal arguments that have been made in favor of the premise include: These experiences often seem very real to the people involved, and are quite often reported as being shared by a number of people.
Despite believing in Gods, Lucretius, like Epicurusfelt that religion was born of fear and ignorance, and that understanding the natural world would free people of its shackles. Voltaire complained about Jews killed by other Jews for worshiping a golden calf and similar actions, he also condemned how Christians killed other Christians over religious differences and how Christians killed Native Americans for not being baptised.
Voltaire claimed the real reason for these killings was that Christians wanted to plunder the wealth of those killed. Voltaire was also critical of Muslim intolerance. Hume claimed that natural explanations for the order in the universe were reasonable, see design argument.
Their books and articles have spawned debate in multiple fields of inquiry and are heavily quoted in popular media online forums, YouTubetelevision and popular philosophy. In The End of Faithphilosopher Sam Harris focuses on violence among other toxic qualities of religion.
In Breaking the Spellphilosopher Daniel Dennett focuses on the question of "why we believe strange things". In The God Delusionbiologist Richard Dawkins covers almost every facet of religion injecting both snarky irony and humor. In God Is Not Greatjournalist and polemicist Christopher Hitchens focused on how religious forces attacks human dignity and the corruption of religious organizations.
In the Oxford Handbook of Atheism, according to Thomas Zenc the four books were published during a time of intense debate on political, religious and sociological questions.
The works share many common themes yet notably differ in scope, style and content.
While according to Zenc the beginnings of a broader narrative New Atheism seems to have emerged it does not, stand up to the full definition of a movement. Religion and Definition of religion Today, religion is broadly conceived as an abstraction which entails beliefs, doctrines and sacred places—even though the ancient and medieval cultures that produced religious textslike the Bible or the Qurandid not have such conceptions or ideas in their languages, cultures, or histories.
Religion as a modern Western concept developed from the 17th century onwards. Criticism of religious concepts[ edit ] See also: However, we feel that religion even in moderation provides a foundation for fanatical groups to thrive"  Some criticisms on monotheistic religions have been: Religion is wrong as it is in conflict with science i.
Genesis creation myth  Conflicting claims about the one true faith also see argument from inconsistent revelations. Development of religion Dennett and Harris have asserted that theist religions and their scriptures are not divinely inspired, but man made to fulfill socialbiological and political needs.
Narratives to provide comfort and meaning[ edit ] David Hume argued that religion developed as a source of comfort in the face of the adversity, not as an honest grappling with verifiable truth.
Religion is therefore an unsophisticated form of reasoning. As such, they may have served several important functions in ancient societies.
Examples include the views many religions traditionally had towards solar and lunar eclipses and the appearance of comets forms of astrology. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people. It is in the interest of the ruling classes to instill in the masses the religious conviction that their current suffering will lead to eventual happiness.
In this perspective, Marx saw religion as escapism. Original sin, he argued, convinces people that the source of their misery lies in the inherent and unchangeable "sinfulness" of humanity rather than in the forms of social organization and institutions, which Marx argued can be changed through the application of collective social planning.
They conclude that people with such disorders have had a monumental influence on civilization. Pickover found evidence suggesting that temporal lobe epilepsy may be linked to a variety of so-called spiritual or "other worldly" experiences, such as spiritual possessionoriginating from altered electrical activity in the brain.
Science as a Candle in the Darkpresented his case for the miraculous sightings of religious figures and modern sightings of UFOs coming from the same mental disorder. Psilocybin from mushrooms affect regions of the brain includingthe serotonergic system, which generating a sense of strong religious meaning, unity and ecstasy.Books The Moral Case Against Religious Belief Marilyn Kane reviews The Moral Case Against Religious Belief by R.A.
Sharpe.. Once, asked to comment on a book, Abraham Lincoln replied, “People who like this sort of thing will find this is the sort of thing they like.”. an argument against religious belief a possible state of affairs that would prevent us from distinguishing true beliefs from false ones.
someone who enjoys destroying other people's beliefs. The argument from religious experience is an argument for the existence of benjaminpohle.com holds that the best explanation for religious experiences is that they constitute genuine experience or perception of a divine reality.
Various reasons have been offered for and against accepting this contention. This is a version of the argument from religious diversity against religious belief. On the second reading, the problem with belief in extraordinary agents is that it .
Philosophy of Religion. Philosophy of religion is the philosophical study of the meaning and nature of religion.
It includes the analyses of religious concepts, beliefs, terms, arguments, and practices of religious adherents. New Letters of David Hume.
Edited by Raymond Klibansky and Ernest C. Mossner. Nevertheless, a Humean argument can be made against belief in the miraculous. Livingston, Donald W. Hume’s Philosophy of Common Life Penelhum previously offered a careful argument that some form of religious belief, for Hume, is natural.