Mao's first goal was a total overhaul of the land ownership system, and extensive land reforms. Over a million landlords were executed.
Since then the place of religion in the organization of society, its importance and influence on individuals and State, has been questioned as never before. How did the demise of the traditional systems of belief happen? How did the secular revolution begin? It started, above all, with politics in the heart of Europe, with a revolt against the old political and social order of privileges and birthrights.
In his book The Old Regime and the French Revolution, Alexis De Tocqueville observed that in the revolutionary bourgeoisie did not rise against the Christian faith, but against the Church, because its instututions were seen as part of the "Ancient Regime".
The revolutionaries treated clergy as "landed proprietor," a "parasite" on the body of the French nation. At this time, science was still unborn and religious skepticism was heard only from a handful of voices.
But in the nineteenth century, the enmity against the Church shifted or rather expanded against Christian faith in general. New secular prophets emerged. They were not scientists in the modern sense of the word, but political thinkers and philosophers.
They established new and powerful ideological narratives, based on politically colored Darwinism, supported by "scientific" arguments, and attractive promises for successful social ist engineering. Although their teachings were only theories, they defended them with religious zeal.
The "scientific method" was their Gospel, and in the ferment of the Industrial Revolution, with the exploding A history of chinas transformation confucianism to communism of science and technology, they claimed ownership over every human achievement, waging a war for the hearts and minds of people, arguing that science and religion are two implacable enemies.
The flaw and tragedy of their worldview was that they looked at science and religion politically. Inthe communists in Russia took over the power. Religion and Church were suppressed because, like in France ofthey were seen as a part of the old regime and thus deemed as a threat to the new political order.
But unlike the French revolutionaries, the Bolsheviks had on their disposition the legitimizing ideology of Marxism that rejected both the necessity of religious institutions and religious faith itself.
In the twentieth century, almost all post-colonial national movements adopted the secularist, anti-religious Marxism as their ideology.
And if we ask why did a theory that deals with the industrial societies and their social classes become the central ideology of almost all national movements in the pre-indusrtial societies of the twentieth century, the direct answer is that these new nations were not enough mature, not enough historically developed, to create their own, authentic modernist message.
They borrowed and modified the Western Marxism, their new revolutionary elites found in it a convenient ideology for their ambitions to hold power and rule. The religious institutions in these societies were naturally seen as a part of the old political order and colonial past and thus automatically declared as political enemies of national independence and self-determination.
In the twentieth century, Marxism was a dominant although not always winning ideology in the Middle East, Africa, Latin America, and Asia. The new national elites that fought against the grip of the old colonial and feudal lords adopted and transformed it according to the goals of their own political agendas.
China was among the states that embraced Marxism and its revolutionary Bolshevik strain -- Leninism -- as a flagship for its modernization and lost independence.
The reason for this resilience is that the Marxist ideology has never been the true matrix of the Chinese political order.
His writing is feverish and exalted, dressed with Marxist-Leninist terminology, but only resembling Marxism. Marxism is a teaching, before all, against the capitalist exploitation, a revolutionary theory explaining the alienated labour, class relations, and the realities of the Western political and econimic order -- things hardly existing in China in the s and 40s.
Marxism is about the emancipation of the working classes, but even until the s the Chinese society was still predominantly agrarian; Marxism is about a teleological process of ultimate change that follows strict historical patterns -- feudalism destroyed by capitalism, capitalism transformed by socialism, and socialism developed into communism.
Its real messages are either commands and directives of the central power or education in loyalty to the Party. Its highest goal is to keep the society in peace, under the control of the ruling elite.
Chinese communism, like every radical political ideology, has religious nature.
Marxism-Leninism is an ideology that, in the name of a utopian promise, promotes the dictatorship and supremacy of one social group or party over all others. The Marxism of Bolshevik type, i. Normally, the totalitarian and authoritarian political elites that adopt Marxism as their ideology do not accept the idea of God.
They are neither constrained by some genuine religious culture and worldview that the citizens, including the ruling elites follow, nor by any democratic institutions. All legitimacy of power comes from these three centers--Party, Ideology, Leader.
Compared to the God of religion, the presence and the will of the totalitarian god is immediate and direct; the god of the totalitarian state has the power to punish quickly and reward without delay.
It is an active, visible, undeniable power; the Party leaders are its bishops, the political activists-- its priests and deacons. Every totalitarian state has its own mythology and system of worship.China's Government 'Running To Stay In One Place' June 04, GMT A girl wounded during the clash between the army and students is carried out of Tiananmen Square in The Chinese Foreign Policy of the years - is analyzed under the main concepts provided by Confucius thought.
Even not a religion, Confucianism is for Chinese people what Christianity is. Quality post China as a Socialist & Marxist-Leninist State: A defense (benjaminpohle.comism) submitted 1 year ago * by zombiesingularity Recently there was some controversy regarding my claim that China remains a Socialist and Marxist-Leninist state.
Nov 23, · The emphasis on China's history and legacy is part of President Xi Jinping's "China Dream", or rejuvenation of a great Chinese nation, led by the Communist Party. Last year, he became the first communist leader to attend celebrations marking the birthday of Confucius.
NY: Routledge.6 Confucian Philosophy and its Role in Chinese History Confucian philosophy has been a fundamental element in the development of Chinese civilization. and respect for authority are in official favor once again. the teachings of Confucius emphasized the importance of education.
Development and Interaction Between Cultures of Ancient China to Present Day China Introduction Conclusion During the ancient times, China struggled with political and economical crisis and at one point closed all its doors and turned to communism. Over the coarse of many years, China experienced a.